A Summary of Sheep Breeds Popular in the United States


Droving sheep at sunset with storm – Powder River Basin – Wyoming.
Photo credit: Flickr CC via Jeremy Buckingham MLC.

Talk about an idyllic farm picture. Scatter some sheep across a green “veriditas” pasture under a few trees. Or watch a collie herd a flock of sheep across a mountain rangeland. This mammal is a good fit in a pastoral rural landscape, a hardy and rugged flock animal which provides healthy meat and fiber for humans. The number of sheep being raised in America has diminished greatly since the 1950’s, but they are coming back on today’s small, organic farms and among local food movement meat appreciators.

BACKGROUND

Sheep were being domesticated 9 to 11 thousand years ago in Mesopotamia. In Europe, sheep husbandry was taking place 600 B.C. in the south of France. They descended from the Asian mouflon which are still found in the mountains of Asia Minor and southern Iran.

The number of domestic sheep in the world is over one billion. Sheep were introduced into the United States in 1607. In the early 19th century, sheep production in the U.S. moved westward where rangeland competition between cattle and sheep have been ongoing ever since.

The sheep is a ruminant animal, that having a four-chambered stomach and chewing a cud. Sheep are mostly grazers as opposed to goats which tend to forage on a wider variety of plants. Sheep prefer to eat forbs, or flowering plants, as well as grass and clover. They are useful at controlling weeds such a leafy spurge, knapweed, and kudzu. Sheep love to eat grain, but if it is added to their diets, it must be introduced slowly.

There are more than 200 distinct sheep breeds worldwide. Breeds vary according to their quality of meat, milk, and wool production as well as their hardiness and adaptability. Wool fiber characteristics are described as fine, medium, and long, or carpet wool. A rich, moist, pasture acre might support ten grazing sheep whereas an arid pasture condition might require ten acres per sheep. The intelligent Border Collie is a popular dog for working sheep. Sheep are often marked by their owners with ear tags, or raddles, which are temporary colored pigments. Sheep growers must work to prevent predators such as coyotes and dogs from reducing their herds.

Wool-producing sheep breeds need sheared at least once a year, preferrably in the spring. One sheep might produce seven pounds of grease wool. Because of the expense of shearing, hair sheep varieties which shed their coat naturally, are gaining in popularity.

Foraging herbivores such as sheep under managed or “prescribed” grazing conditions, are beneficial to grasslands and help to improve biodiversity. But, care has to be taken not to allow sheep to over-graze, which damages range land.

Sheep production has been on the decline in the United States. It peaked at 56 million head in 1945, and went down to 7 million head in 2003. Larger sheep operations are in the Western U.S. and smaller ones are in the Northeast, where the meat is more popular. Texas, California, and Wyoming are the top sheep-producing states. Meatpacking concentration has eroded prices for sheep producers in the U.S., contributing to the decline in herds. The development of synthetic fabrics in the 1960’s hurt the wool industry. However, small local lamb producers are being embraced in the eat-local and farmers market movements that are popular today.

Now, the U.S. imports much of its lamb from Australia and New Zealand, where sheep are grass-fed and generally smaller weight animals. Australia accounts for almost 30 percent of the world’s lamb and mutton exports and New Zealand accounts for over 40 percent. These two countries also have the highest lamb and mutton consumption in the world at 50 pounds per year for New Zealand and 37 pounds per year for Australia, as compared to 1 pound per year in the U.S.

To follow are photos and brief descriptions of some of the most popular sheep breeds being raised in the U.S., plus a few heritage varieties.

__________________________________________________________

MERINO WOOL SHEEP


Merino wool sheep – Virginia.
Photo credit: Flickr CC via brownpau.

Merino sheep breeds are fine wool sheep found in Australia, South Africa, South America and the U.S. This variety accounts for about 50 percent of the world’s sheep population. Fine wool sheep do well in arid and semi-arid regions, have a strong flocking instinct, are productive, adaptable, excellent foragers, and are long-lived. The merino wool sheep has fine and soft, high quality wool and is slightly smaller than sheep bred just for meat. Merino, a Spanish word, is historically well-known in Spain where it was introduced as early as the 12th century. Merino wool is common in high-end, performance athletic clothing.

There are many breeds of merino wool sheep including American Rambouillet, German Merinofleischschaf, South African Meat Merino, Delaine Merino, Argentine Merino, Booroola Merino, and others.

__________________________________________________________

RAMBOUILLET SHEEP


Rambouillet Sheep.
Photo credit: American Rambouillet Sheep Breeders Association.

Rambouillet are the most popular commercial sheep. They are the foundation breed of most western range flocks in the United States. Sometimes called the French Merino, they descend from the Spanish Merino crossed with native French “Rambouillet” farm sheep, dating back to 1800. German breeders further developed and popularized the breed, which is larger than the Spanish merino. The U.S. Rambouillet breed association was formed in 1889. This is a large and long lived breed with a strong flocking instinct. It is an excellent dual-purpose breed for both meat and wool.

To learn more, go to the American Rambouillet Sheep Breeders Association.

__________________________________________________________

SUFFOLK SHEEP


Suffolk sheep – Ovis aries – Midlands, England.
Photo credit: Flickr CC via fwooper.

The Suffolk sheep breed is a meat or “mutton-type” sheep, with medium wool, and a striking appearance with its black legs and head. It accounts for more than fifty percent of purebred sheep registrations. It originated from a cross between Southdown rams and Norfolk Horn ewes 200 years ago on the rugged southeastern coast of England. This is a large, fast growing breed which yields heavy, good-quality meat. They were introduced into the U.S. in 1888.

To learn more, go to the United Suffolk Sheep Association.

__________________________________________________________

HAMPSHIRE SHEEP


Hampshire sheep.
Photo credit: Wikipedia.

The Hampshire sheep breed produces fine quality medium wool and excellent mutton. They have black legs and faces, grow quickly, and have good meat carcasses. Hampshires are large and active foragers with a mild dispostion. The breed originated in the early 1800’s by crossing Southdowns with horned white-faced sheep native to the Hampshire Downs in the UK. It became popular in the U.S. in the 18th century.

To learn more, go to the American Hampshire Sheep Association.

__________________________________________________________

KATAHDIN SHEEP


Katahdin Sheep, third largest meat breed.
Photo credit: Hidden Meadow Farms – Bridgewater, Maine

The Katahdin sheep is a hair sheep which has good carcass quality and was developed in the U.S. in the 1950’s. They are named after Mt. Katahdin in Maine where they were crossed by an amateur geneticist. This breed is easy-care, low-maintenance, tolerant of extreme weather, and naturally resistant to parasites. It sheds its winter coat, so it does not have to be sheared, which saves costs and makes them suitable to the warmer growing regions. They are medium-sized and ideal for pasture lambing and forage systems.

To learn more, go to Katahdin Hair Sheep International.

__________________________________________________________

DORPER SHEEP


Dorper Sheep.
Photo credit: Wikipedia.

The Dorper sheep is a hardy, popular breed in South Africa. Originating in arid condtions, it is highly adaptable to many environments. Its popularity in the U.S. started in 1995. Their coat is a mix of wool and hair and drops off without being sheared. It has a prized sheepskin because it is so thick, protecting it from harsh weather. This skin is marketed under the name “Cape Glovers” and provides about 20 percent of the Dorper’s carcass value. They are a good mutton producing sheep.

To learn more, go to the American Dorper Sheep Breeders’ Society.

__________________________________________________________

DORSET SHEEP


Dorset Sheep.
Photo credit: Old McCaskill’s Farm – Rembert, South Carolina.

The Dorset sheep is a medium wool, meat sheep known for prolific lambing. Polled dorsets are popular in the U.S. They are prolific breeders and milkers with a good body carcass for meat production. In the U.S., Dorset history began in Salem, Oregon in 1860, while polled Dorsets originated at North Carolina State College in Raleigh. They are the most popular white faced breed in the U.S., and second only to the Suffolk breed in total numbers.

To learn more, go to the Continental Dorset Club.

__________________________________________________________

SOUTHDOWN SHEEP


Southdown Sheep.
Photo credit: Wyncrest Farms – Houstonia, Missouri.

The Southdown sheep are a dual-purpose medium wool and meat sheep well suited for farm flock production. They originated from southeastern England, are one of the oldest sheep breeds, and have contributed genetics to the Suffolk, Hampshire and Oxford breeds. They were known to be in Connecticut back in 1648. They are great survivors and thrivers in difficult conditions and adapt well to intensive management. The breed is medium-small with a gray face and legs and is polled. Southdown sheep are useful for grazing weeds in vineyards because they are too short to reach the grapes.

__________________________________________________________

KARAKUL SHEEP


Karakul Sheep.
Photo credit: Flickr CC via Just chaos.

The Karakul sheep breed is a fat tailed sheep that is possibly the oldest of the domesticated sheep, dating back to 1400 B.C. in Persia. Fat tailed sheep are about 25 percent of the world sheep population and have a distinctive taste. Karakul sheep are found in very arid regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Extremely hardy, they are raised for meat, milk, pelts, and wool. They were introduced into the U.S. in the early 20th century for pelt production. Currently, Karakul’s are finding a niche in the fiber arts cottage industry, so there are small farm flocks throughout the U.S. The fleece lacks a high grease content, is easily spun, and produces a superior carpet yarn. It is the wool from which the art of felting began.

To learn more, go to the American Karakul Sheep Registry.

__________________________________________________________

LINCOLN SHEEP


Lincoln Sheep.
Photo credit: National Lincoln Sheep Breeders Association

The Lincoln, or Lincoln Longwool sheep was imported from England into the U.S. in the late 18th century. It is known as the world’s largest sheep breed, with mature rams weighing from 250 to 350 pounds. They are long wooled sheep and their lustrous fleece is in demand for spinning and weaving crafts. They produce the heaviest and coarsest fleece of all the long-wooled sheep varieties.

To learn more, go to the National Lincoln Sheep Breeders Association.

__________________________________________________________

ICELANDIC SHEEP


Icelandic Sheep.
Photo credit: Flickr CC via Neil D’Cruze.

The medium-sized Icelandic sheep are raised for fiber, meat, and milk. This feral and thrifty breed has coarse, low grade wool, used for carpets. The breed is double-coated with a coarse long outer coat for protection from life in extreme environments. They are a very prolific, short-tailed breed originating from Northern Europe, and brought to Iceland by the Vikings in 9th century. Accustomed to harsh environments, they are efficient herbivores, and not very docile. To preserve its heritage it is illegal to import any sheep into Iceland, where the breed is used primarily for meat. The first Icelandic sheep were introduced into North America in 1985, in Canada.

To learn more, go to the Icelandic Sheep Breeders of North America.

__________________________________________________________

NAVAJO CHURRO SHEEP


Navajo Churro Ram.
Photo credit: Flickr CC via Just chaos.

The Navajo Churro sheep is the oldest U.S. breed with the most animals located in New Mexico. They were imported to North America in the 16th century to feed Spanish armies. This breed is hardy and adaptable, intelligent, has delicate meat, and double coat wool for yarn used in Navajo weaving. Churro thrived in the Southwest and were kept by the Navajo along the Rio Grande Valley in the 17th century. They became an important part of Navajo culture, providing them with meat, milk, hide, horns and wool. The U.S. government nearly exterminated them in the 1860’s and again in the 1930’s, when flocks were massacred by the USDA to about 800 head. Today, they are making a comeback. The breed was revived by starting a breeding program in 1978 from gathering survivors found in small pockets. The species is now “rare” but not “endangered”.

To learn more, go to the Navajo-Churro Sheep Association.

__________________________________________________________

LEICESTER LONGWOOL SHEEP


Leicester Longwool Sheep at Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia.
Photo credit: Flickr CC via Rory Finneren.

The Leicester Longwool sheep were developed in the 1700’s by Britain’s Robert Bakewell. It is a curly wooled sheep, medium to large, with a high quality carcass, but valued especially by handspinners and weavers. These were raised in the early American colonies, but had almost disappeared by the 1930’s in the U.S. A Colonial Williamsburg project is working on bringing back this heritage sheep breed, classified as “rare”. This has been an important breed for humans. Leicester Longwool’s were instrumental in the colonization of New Zealand and Australia, and were used in the 19th and 20th centuries to create new breeds of sheep. Today they number about 2,000 world-wide.

To learn more, go to the Leicester Longwool Sheep Breeders Association.

__________________________________________________________

REFERENCES

1. Sheep breeds – Oklahoma State website.
2. Sheep 101 Information (Maryland).
3. American Sheep Industry Association.
4. Wikipedia.

11 thoughts on “A Summary of Sheep Breeds Popular in the United States

  1. Jason

    Thanks for this Kay. I am quite fond of sheep. We have a lot of Dorset and some Suffolk.

    One thing I like about them is that they can get on ground much earlier than cattle can. We can graze within 2-3 months after planting and can graze during the wet winter here. Relatively small animals and so less compaction on soil. Can go from conception to slaughter in a year so cash flow is faster than with cattle. Eat “weeds” really well in most cases too. And don’t need a lot of water.

    So, lots of advantages over cattle and so amazing to me how little lamb is eaten in the U.S. compared to N.Z. and Australia! It would be great for eaters to add lamb to their diet, especially knowing it came from well-managed range land and/or pasture-based producers.

    I was told by an experience lamb marketer that one reason for the rapid decline in the sheep population after WWII was that GIs were fed cheap canned mutton and many refused to eat another bite of sheep the rest of their life. Add to that the relatively cheap N.Z. and Australian dollars and thus inexpensive imports…the American Lamb industry has been on a six decade decline, which will hopefully begin reversing now.

    Reply
    1. K.M. Post author

      Jason,

      Always love your comments! Thanks.

      If our family is any indicator, we’ve upped our lamb consumption over the past few years and love it to the point that it’s one of my very favorite meats. But, I just read a BBC story about how German shepherds are getting run off land because of biofuels acreage, so I’m not sure where this is all headed, but I agree that sheep make a lot of sense in practicality, size, and for land management. Are they a lot of work to butcher? Is that part of the problem? Seems possible that the packing plants voted for cattle, but I’m conjecturing here. ??

      Yes, WWII history embraced sheep production for meat and fiber.

      Wish I could see for myself the flocks in Australia and NZ!

      Reply
      1. Jason

        Interesting re. biofuels acreage in Germany. Hadn’t heard that.

        I have heard from shepherds in CA that they are getting pushed off because more acreage is going into orchards instead of crops that they are allowed to graze aftermath. Seems like established orchards should allow sheep in to graze under story in fall, but I know that there is a great fear of manure among those doing fruit and vegetable production, mostly from the point of view of covering any potential liability if an e-coli turns up.

        Lamb processing is fairly easy since the animals are of modest size. (A person can do it by themselves on a regular size table and string up a carcass with a simple pulley and their own weight.) Because so few plants specialize in lamb processing, however, there can be problems with scheduling and thus how long animals are kept beyond ideal weight/carcass condition. What is causing problems now is too many “old cropper” fat lambs in the system. Prices for lamb got so high that demand was cut into and now prices are being driven down because of an over-supply of a product that is of lower quality. We are trying to stay out of this game with regional and more direct marketing. Perhaps prices will go up into a reasonable/fair but not high range in 2-3 months as the 2011 crop clears and the 2012 comes around.

        Reply
      2. Arthur Woollams

        I am an Australian who has been involved in the sheep industry for over 30yrs, both commercial and stud, and I am coming to USA in August 2013 and would love to meet sheep producers and maybe swap a few stories. Any help would be appreciated.
        Thanks

        Reply
  2. Munir akhtar Baig

    Good service to human being . Shared good knowledge regarding the preservation of breeds . I will appreciate if advised the variety of sheep which is suitable for foraging & has good tolerance for extreme weather good meat viz.

    Reply
  3. Bob Julyan

    enjoyed the article about the sheep breeds. Reminds me of how many apple varieties are out there. A question: in the Old West, circa 1880, what would have been the breed raised by sheep ranchers?

    Reply
  4. Rebecca

    Thanks for the article, I am looking for imformation for a 4-H project, and this was extremely helpful. My family has a few suffolk cross sheep that we breed for 4-H and market, and I have a ewe of my own that I breed for my projects. Anyhow, thanks for the info. It will help a lot with my poster.

    Reply
  5. B.J.

    Thank you for the ad and advice on Sheep. I am looking for a pure black lamb that does not require shearing . maybe one of the heritage sheep. I am new at sheep, but have St Croix. and St Croix/Dorper cross. All my life I have wonted a black lamb. can anyone help me out on this venture…..Thanks

    Reply
  6. Harshan gowda

    I want to built a sheep farm with less investment, i have my own farm, so please suggest my some ideas to make it successfull.
    thanks…

    Reply
  7. james elliott

    I have been in the slaughtering business all my life.My dad began slaughtering after WWII and bought his own plant in 1958.I still own and operate this same company.We rebuilt in 1973 to better comply with regulations.We slaughter beef lamb and pork.We slaughter an average of 2 dozen lambs a week, a small kill but it amounts to about 10 percent of our kill.I once slaughtered a ram that dressed 250 lbs.That’s really big for south Louisiana.I always wanted to see more sheep this size.It’s always a joy to see animals this size as I find there’s a special beauty to them.Could someone direct me to where I could see some of these proud animals?

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>